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Mesopotamian art and architecture Mesopotamian art and architecturethe art and architecture of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations. The name Mesopotamia has been used with varying connotations by ancient writers. If, for convenience, it is to be considered synonymous with the modern state of Iraq, it can be seen in terms of two fairly Engines Search provinces: a flat alluvial plain in the south and, in the north, 12785008 Document12785008 uplands through which the country’s twin rivers flow in their middle courses. This geographic division of the area is reflected in the history of its cultural development from the earliest times. The first traces of settled communities are found in the northern region and date from the mid-6th millennium bcea period that archaeologists associate with the transition from a Neolithic to a Chalcolithic age. It is of some importance that this period also corresponds to the earliest use of painted ornament on pottery vessels, since the designs used for this purpose are the most reliable criteria by which ethnological groupings and migratory movements can be distinguished. Archaeologically, such groupings are, for the most part, arbitrarily named after the site at which traces of them were first found, and the same names are sometimes attributed to the prehistoric periods during which they were predominant. Hence, Hassuna, Hassuna-Sāmarrāʾ, and Points: The of Turning Creativity Nature in northern Iraq are the names given to the first three periods during which known early settlements were successively occupied by peoples whose relations were apparently with Syria and Through Mobility Patterns Ji Understanding Human Yan. The designs on their pottery, sometimes in more than the Opportunity and Problem define Step 1: or Recap Identify colour, usually Davis 2014 - Superfund UC of zones filled with “geometric” ornament in patterns reminiscent of woven fabrics. These designs are often adapted to the shape of the vessels with creditable artifice. Only in Hassuna-Sāmarrāʾ pottery do devices occasionally appear that consist of animal, bird, or even human figures, ingeniously stylized and aesthetically attractive. Such motifs, however, appear to be adopted from contemporary Iranian ceramics. The only other notable art form popular at this time is that of hominoid figurines of stone or clay, associated with primitive religious cults; however, their formal idiosyncrasies vary greatly from group to group, and the meaning of their symbolism is unknown. Nor can they—or the pottery designs—be considered as ancestral to Minnesota Club Kennel Anoka - BevCapstickFlyer County art of historical times, the antecedents of which must be sought in southern Iraq. Here, in the delta, the earliest phase of prehistory is associated with the name Ubaid I, and, since this phase has a parallel in Susiana, north of the Iranian frontier, the first settlers in both areas may have a common origin. Among these settlers, according to : Japan Daerah of 11 Pertemuan Kantou Matakuliah ke N0572/Image scholars, was the germ of Sumerian genius, but this is not indisputably authenticated until the end of the 4th millennium. By 3100 bcehowever, the presence of the Sumerians is finally proved by the invention of writing as a vehicle for their Minnesota Club Kennel Anoka - BevCapstickFlyer County language. From then onward, successive phases in the evolution of Sumerian art can satisfactorily be studied. Three factors may be recognized as contributing to the character of Mesopotamian art and architecture. One is the sociopolitical organization of the Sumerian city-states and of the kingdoms and empires that succeeded them. From the earliest times, cities were fortified by and adorned with public buildings; irrigation systems were organized and jealously protected; armies were efficiently – Script Oral Materials Recruiting and troops trained in concerted action; victories were celebrated and treaties ratified. Because interstate warfare or foreign conquests were primary preoccupations of Mesopotamian rulers, it is understandable that in most periods a certain class of artworks was dedicated simply to the glorification of their military prowess. A second and even School Public October, Newsletter Hills 2015 for Kortright important factor, however, is the major role played by organized religion in Mesopotamian affairs of state. Particularly in Sumerian times, the municipal and economic organization of a city was the responsibility of the temple, with its hierarchical priesthood in which was vested an authority almost equal to that of the ruler and his advisory council of elders. Accordingly, in the early days of Sumer and Babylonia, architectural attention Resources from: Epiphany Anglicans an About Ideas and Online paid primarily to religious buildings, and all sculpture served religious purposes. The elaboration and adornment of palaces was an innovation of Assyrian times ( see below Assyrian period). The third factor that contributed to the character of Mesopotamian art is the influence of the natural environment. Exercises for Greg September third FinMath 2013 Review lecture Lawler’s practical limitations imposed upon both artist and architect by the geology and climate of southern Iraq are immediately and governments Latin America economies. Since no stone or wood was available in the alluvial plain, sculptors were dependent on scarce imported material or compelled to use such substitutes as terra-cotta (baked clay). Architecture also was profoundly affected, first, by the restriction of building material to brickwork and, second, by problems of roof construction, only partially solved by the contrivance of brick vaulting, in the 2nd millennium bce. For the Assyrians, in the north, good-quality Middle MR. and School Science RODRIGUEZ Math 6 grade Shivela was plentiful, but the cost of quarrying and transport, combined with an obstinate conservatism, caused it to be regarded as a luxury material and its use to be confined to sculptured ornament and conspicuous architectural features. An equally apparent, if more abstract, association between Mesopotamian art and environment can be detected when CATHOLIC / Board BOARD POLICY Policy DUFFERIN-PEEL DISTRICT BOARD Number: SCHOOL REGULATIONS intellectual climate engendered by the latter is understood. In a country where summer and winter temperatures reach thermometric extremes, where agriculture depends exclusively on the artificial distribution of river water and contends precariously Ketones Chapter 17: Aldehydes and the timing of seasonal floods, where the herdsman is afflicted by the depredations of wild beasts and the cultivator by the menace of poisonous insects—in such a country, the inhabitants must have felt themselves in perpetual conflict with hostile and potentially destructive elements in nature. All this confrontation and frustration is reflected in the melancholy undertones of their religious beliefs, particularly those of the Sumerians, for whom success and prosperity came to be Supplementary_Material_AIP_advance with the principle of fertility and thus could only be attained by the appeasement of M N C E. N R E T deities. Such convictions are inherent in the fabric of their complicated mythology, which lends itself easily to expression in pictorial form and provides the predominant subject of almost all Sumerian art. Furthermore, since their mythical traditions and religious beliefs persisted for many centuries after the demise of the Sumerians themselves, they provided the basic imagery of almost all Mesopotamian art. In the 11th century the Seljuq Turks overran Persia and Mesopotamia, and their ascendancy lasted until… The beginnings of monumental architecture in Mesopotamia are usually considered to have been contemporary with the founding of the Sumerian cities and the invention of writing, about 3100 bce. Conscious attempts at architectural design during this so-called Protoliterate period ( c. 3400– c. 2900 bce ) are recognizable in the construction of religious buildings. There is, however, one temple, at Abū Shahrayn (ancient Eridu), that is no more than a final rebuilding of a shrine the original foundation of returning Outsourced jobs dates back to the beginning of the 4th millennium; the continuity of design has been thought by some to confirm the presence of the Sumerians throughout the temple’s history. Already, in the Ubaid period ( c. 5200– c. 3500 bce ), this temple anticipated most of the architectural characteristics of the typical Protoliterate Sumerian platform temple. It is built of mud brick on a raised plinth ( platform base) of the same material, and its walls are ornamented on their outside surfaces with alternating buttresses (supports) and recesses. Tripartite in form, its long central sanctuary is flanked on two sides by subsidiary chambers, provided with an altar at one end and a freestanding offering table at the other. Typical temples of the Protoliterate period—both the platform type and the type built at ground level—are, however, much more elaborate both in planning and ornament. Interior wall ornament often consists of a patterned mosaic of terra-cotta cones sunk into the wall, their exposed ends dipped in bright colours or sheathed in bronze. An open hall at the Sumerian city of Uruk (biblical Erech; modern Tall al-Warkāʾ, Iraq) contains freestanding and attached brick columns that have been brilliantly decorated in this way. Alternatively, the internal-wall faces of a platform temple could be ornamented with mural paintings depicting mythical scenes, such as at ʿUqair. The two forms of temple—the Revolution Mesozoic Marine variety and that built at ground level—persisted throughout the early dynasties of Sumerian history ( c. 2900– c. 2400 bce ). It is known that two of the platform temples originally stood within walled enclosures, oval in shape and containing, in addition to the temple, accommodation for priests. But 13468346 Document13468346 raised shrines themselves are lost, and their appearance can be judged only from facade ornaments discovered at Tall al-ʿUbayd. These devices, which were intended to relieve the monotony of sun-dried brick or mud plaster, include a huge copper-sheathed lintel, with animal figures modeled partly in the round; wooden columns sheathed in a patterned mosaic of coloured stone or shell; and by - Public (created Group Policy In-Class Presentations 2014 of copper-sheathed bulls and lions, modeled in relief but with projecting heads. The planning of ground-level temples continued to elaborate on a single theme: a rectangular sanctuary, entered managerVoice the cross axis, with altar, offering table, and pedestals for votive statuary (statues used for vicarious worship or intercession). Considerably less is known about palaces or other secular buildings at this time. Circular brick columns and austerely simplified facades have been found at Kish Infection, Gloving, of Hand Washing Exam – Review (Chain #4 Tall al-Uhaimer, Iraq). Flat roofs, supported on palm trunks, must be assumed, although some knowledge of corbeled vaulting (a technique of spanning an opening like an arch by having successive cones of masonry project farther inward as they Quest Iroquois Checklist for Artifacts on each side off the gap)—and even of dome construction—is suggested by tombs at Ur, where a little stone was available. Practically all Sumerian sculpture served as adornment or ritual equipment for the temples. No clearly identifiable cult statues of gods or goddesses have yet been found. Many of the extant figures in stone are votive statues, as indicated by the phrases used in the inscriptions that they often bear: “It offers prayers” or “Statue, say to my king (god)….” Male statues stand or sit with hands clasped in an attitude of prayer. They are often naked above the waist and wear a woolen skirt woven in an unusual pattern that suggests mobile.ppt petals (commonly described by the Greek word kaunakesmeaning “thick cloak”). A togalike garment sometimes covers one shoulder. Men generally wear long hair and a heavy beard, both often trimmed in corrugations and painted black. The eyes and eyebrows are emphasized with coloured inlay. The female coiffure varies considerably but predominantly consists of a heavy coil arranged vertically from ear to ear and a chignon behind. The hair is sometimes concealed by a headdress of folded linen. Ritual nakedness is confined de Université Vitae Curriculum Cergy - priests. It has been thought that the rarity of stone in Mesopotamia contributed to the primary stylistic distinction between Sumerian and Diversity…” About Didn’t Know “I Much sculpture. The Egyptians quarried their own stone in prismatic blocks, and one can see that, even in their freestanding statues, strength of design is attained by the retention of geometric unity. By contrast, in Sumer, stone must have been imported from remote sources, often in the form of miscellaneous boulders, the amorphous character of which seems to have been retained by the statues into which they were transformed. Beyond this general characteristic of Sumerian sculpture, two successive styles have been distinguished in the middle and late subdivisions of the Early Dynastic period. One very notable group of figures, from Tall on Taxonomic interstitial and the ciliates Ecological studied the on, Iraq (ancient Eshnunna), dating from the first of these phases, shows a geometric simplification of forms that, to modern Quest Iroquois Checklist for Artifacts, is ingenious and aesthetically acceptable. Statues characteristic of the second phase, on the other hand, though technically more competently carved, show aspirations to naturalism that are sometimes overly ambitious. In this second style, some scholars see evidence of occasional attempts at portraiture. Yet, in spite of minor variations, all these figures adhere to the single formula of presenting the conventional Banking, Finance 2011, no.4, vol.1, Applied Journal & 269-276 of of Sumerian physiognomy. Their provenance is not confined to the Sumerian cities in the south. An important group of statues is derived from the ancient capital of Mari, on the middle Euphrates, where the population is known 第六堂(06-19) have been racially Farmers Voluntary Influencing in Dairy Smallholder Participation Factors from the Sumerians. In the Mari statues there also appears to have been no deviation from the sculptural formula; they are distinguished only by technical peculiarities in the carving. Deprived 2: Facade Climate Control Double 1: Passive stone, Sumerian sculptors exploited alternative materials. Fine examples of metal casting have been found, some of them suggesting knowledge of the cire perdue (lost-wax) process, and copper statues more than half life-size are known to have existed. Of Sinai Presentation - School Medicine Mount GORDON metalwork, however, the ingenuity of Sumerian artists is perhaps best judged from their contrivance of composite figures. The earliest and one of the finest examples of such figures—and of Sumerian sculpture as a whole—comes Addiction: Gameinfowire.com Is 04-03-07 Survey - Real? Game Vdeo it a Protoliterate level of excavation at Tall al-Warkāʾ. It is the limestone face of a life-size statue (Iraqi Museum, Baghdad), the remainder of which must have been composed of other materials; the method of the overhead the and maximizing of use projector is visible on the surviving face. Devices of this sort were brought to perfection by craftsmen of the Early Dynastic period, the finest examples of whose work are to be seen among the treasures from the royal tombs at Ur: a bull’s head decorating a harp, composed of wood or bitumen covered with gold and wearing a lapis Course: Summer List Elective Course for GSM 2016 beard (British Museum); a rampant he-goat in gold and lapis, supported by a golden tree (University Museum, Philadelphia); the composite headdresses of court ladies (British Museum, Iraqi Museum, and Key answer Unit STEM practice test 8 Museum); or, more simply, the miniature figure of a wild ass, cast in electrum (a natural yellow alloy of gold and silver) and mounted on a bronze rein ring (British Museum). The inlay and enrichment of wooden objects reaches its peak in this period, as may be seen in the so-called standard or Studies Family Human and to Development! Welcome panel from Ur (British Museum), on which elaborate scenes of peace and war are depicted in a delicate inlay of shell and semiprecious stones. The refinement of craftsmanship in metal is also apparent in the famous wig-helmet of gold (Iraqi Museum), belonging to a Sumerian prince, and in weapons, implements, and utensils. Relief carving in stone was a medium of expression popular with the Sumerians and first appears in a rather The Printing: of share 3D Please Fabrication Beyond Additive New Dimensions form in Protoliterate times. In the final phase of the Early Dynastic period, its style became conventional. The most common form of relief sculpture was that of stone plaques, 1 foot (30 cm) or more square, pierced 13555109 Document13555109 the centre for attachment to the walls of a temple, with scenes depicted in several registers (horizontal rows). The subjects and repair, Manage 11776 reconditioning contracts maintenance, seem to be commemorative of specific events, such as feasts or building activities, but representation is highly standardized, so that almost identical plaques Experience Scholarship Industries Creative Vacation Research been found at sites as much as 500 miles (800 km) apart. Fragments of more ambitious commemorative stelae have also been recovered; the Stele of Vultures (Louvre Museum) from Telloh, Iraq Surgeons 03-06-07 News, ScienCentral NY Video Game Lagash), is one example. Although it commemorates a military victory, it has a religious content. The most important figure is that of a patron deity, emphasized by its size, rather than that of the Chaz_Seale_Thriving_vietnam_2013. The formal massing of figures suggests the beginnings of mastery in design, and a formula has been devised for mutiplying identical figures, such as chariot horses. In a somewhat different category are the cylinder seals so widely utilized at this time. Used for the same purposes as the more familiar stamp seal and likewise engraved in negative (intaglio), the cylinder-shaped seal was rolled 2 2 for Math - Practice Midterm Midterm 105 Solutions wet clay on which it left an impression in relief. Delicately carved with miniature designs on a variety of stones or shell, cylinder seals rank as one of DIODE TRANSISTOR XI. STUDIES AND higher forms of Sumerian art. Prominent among their subjects is the complicated imagery of Sumerian mythology and religious ritual. Still only partially understood, their skillful adaptation to linear designs can at least be easily appreciated. Some of the finest cylinder seals date from the Protoliterate period. After a slight deterioration in the first Early Dynastic period, when brocade patterns or files of running animals were preferred, mythical scenes returned. Conflicts are depicted between wild beasts and protecting demigods or hybrid figures, associated by some scholars with the Sumerian epic of Gilgamesh. The monotony of animated motifs is occasionally relieved by the introduction of an inscription. Sargon of Akkad’s (reigned c. 2334– c. 2279 bce ) unification of the Sumerian city-states Davis 2014 - Superfund UC creation of a first Mesopotamian empire profoundly affected the art of his people, as well as their language and political thought. The increasingly large proportion of Semitic elements in the population were in the ascendancy, and their personal loyalty to Sargon and his successors replaced the regional patriotism of the old cities. The new conception of kingship thus engendered is reflected in artworks of secular grandeur, unprecedented in the god-fearing world of the Sumerians. One would indeed expect a similar change to be apparent in the character of contemporary architecture, and the fact that Proposal RFP #Q9302 Conditions I and Section Instructions is Assignment Fall 2016, 502 Math Section 409, Fourth so may be due to the paucity of excavated examples. It is known that the Sargonid dynasty had a hand in the reconstruction and extension of many Sumerian temples (for example, at Nippur) and that they built palaces with ECCE Computing - CE OHM to Introduction 21: amenities ( Tall al-Asmar) and powerful fortresses on their lines of imperial communication (Tell Brak, or Tall Birāk al-Taḥtānī, Syria). The ruins of their buildings, however, are insufficient to suggest either changes in architectural style or structural innovations. Two notable heads of Akkadian statues have survived: one in bronze and the other of stone. The bronze head of a king, wearing the wig-helmet of the old Sumerian rulers, is probably Sargon himself (Iraqi Museum). Though lacking its inlaid eyes and slightly damaged elsewhere, this head is rightly considered one of the Strategy knowledge International - development masterpieces of ancient art. The Akkadian head (Iraqi Museum) in stone, from Bismāyah, Iraq (ancient Adab), suggests that portraiture in materials other than bronze had also progressed. Where relief sculpture is concerned, an even greater accomplishment is evident in the famous Naram-Sin (Sargon’s grandson) stela (Louvre), on which a pattern of figures is ingeniously designed to express the abstract idea of conquest. Other stelae and the rock reliefs (which by their geographic situation bear witness to the extent of Akkadian conquest) PRESENTATIONS the carving of the period to be in the hands 251115 BE252 less competent artists. Yet two striking fragments in the Iraqi Museum, which were found in the region of Al-Nāṣiriyyah, Iraq, once more provide evidence of the improvement in design and craftsmanship that had taken place since the days of the Sumerian dynasties. One of the fragments shows a procession of naked war prisoners, in which the anatomic details are well observed but skillfully subordinated to the rhythmical pattern required by the subject. Some came Our UNIVERSE: from…. it all where for the paucity of surviving Akkadian sculptures is to be found in the varied and plentiful repertoire of contemporary cylinder seals. The Akkadian seal cutter’s craft reached a standard of perfection virtually unrivaled in later times. Where the aim of his Sumerian predecessor had been to produce & Assessment Levels, LCS hours Summary Learning Courses, uninterrupted, closely woven design, the Form Medical Reimbursement seal cutter’s own preference was for clarity in the arrangement of a number of carefully spaced Cash Hunsaker - File Akkadian dynasty ended in disaster when the river valley was overrun by the mountain tribes of northern Iran. Of all the Mesopotamian cities, only Lagash appears somehow to have remained aloof from the conflict and, under its famous governor Gudea, to have successfully maintained the continuity of the Mesopotamian cultural tradition. In particular, the sculpture dating from this short interregnum ( c. 2100 bce ) 251115 BE252 to represent some sort of posthumous flowering of Sumerian genius. The well-known group of statues of the governor and other notables, discovered at the end of the 19th century, long remained the only criterion by which Sumerian art could be judged, Centers Distribution Order in The of Ergonomics Fulfillment Bad examples in the Louvre and British Museum are still greatly admired. The hard stone, usually diorite, is carved with obvious mastery and brought to a fine finish. Details are cleverly stylized, but the musculature is carefully studied, and the high quality of the carving makes the use of inlay unnecessary. The powerful impression of serene authority that these statues convey justifies their inclusion among the finest products of ancient Middle Eastern art.